Bihar has 94,163 Sq.km. of land areas. The capital of Bihar is Patna. Bihar has Nepal in the north, West Bengal in the East, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in the West and Jharkhand in the South.
The density of this land is about 880per Sq.km.
Airports are present in Patna and Gaya.
Metalled roads are more than 20000kms. 2120kms of Highways and PWD roads is of 13.000kms.
Bihar Sharif, BodhGaya for Buddhists, Mahabathi Temple are very famous to visit. Gautama Buddha attained Mahaparivarna and became an enlightened one at the foot of the Bodhi tree. Chappra, Darbhanga, Gaya are the centre of pilgrimage for Hindus, Vishnupad temple built by queen Ahliya Bai of Indore on the bank of Falgu river which is a Sun God temple. Gopalganj, Hazipur, Johanabad, Katihar, Khagaria, Kishnaraj, Medhepura, Madhubani, Manet, Motihari, Munger, Muzaffarpur and Nalanda where the Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tasang studied in the seventh century. Nawada, Prasanth, HarMandhir is one of the holiest Sikh shrines built by Ranjith singh. Here only Guru Gobind Singh the 10th and the last Guru of Sikh was born in 1660. Pawanpuri, Purnia, Rajgir in these places only Gautama Buddha as well as Mahavir preached.
The name Bihar itself shows that it is a holy land for Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims and Jains. It was derived from Vihara. It is the land of the Buddha and Ashoka the great. Its present capital is Patna which is an ancient past. Aryans who came from the western border migrated to the place and started cultivating the land between 6th and 4th BC. It was then known as Magadha. The Magadha rulers were later defeated by Chandra Gupta Maurya. It was from his capital Patliputra that emperor Ashoka ruled over the entire sub continent and spread the message of Buddha not only in India but to the whole of the world.
History of Bihar
Bihar has a glorious past. Many of its cities were mentioned in Vedas and Puranas. It has become a part of Mythology. It was the main centre of activity of Buddha and Jain Thirthankars. The two great religions of Buddhism and Jainism were born here only. Buddha and Mahavira lived and preached their religion. Great kings Ashoka , Bimbisara and Chandra Gupta Maurya made their Magadha and Pataliputra as made this Magadha and Pataliputra as famous cities over the world. Bihar witnesses the rise and fall of many dynasties. Magadha Kings were mighty warriors. Even Alexander was afraid to see them at the battle. Pataliputra has become the important city as Rome in the 4th century. After Ashoka the fortunes of his empire declined. The Gupta dynasty kings were able to restore its glory. They revived the Hindu culture. They were the worshippers of the Hindu Gods.
After the Gupta dynasty Muslim invaders made roads into Bihar. Mohammed –bin- Bakhair Khalji was the first to set his foot on Bihar. Tughluqs followed and then Mughals in 1574 when Akbar conquered it. Bihar went under their occupation. It was a part of Bengal presidency for some years. Bihar and Orissa were separated from presidency of Bengal in 1911. They became separate provinces in 1936. The two districts of Bihar, Punia and Manbhum were added to west Bengal on the basis of language in the post-Independence period.
Bihar has a huge size but it is the poorest state and its literacy figure is very low. Caste plays a dominant role in the lives of the state. It is the mafia dons who runs the state. Weather is also not helpful for the state. It is flooded in the Monsoon season, too cold in the winter and drought in summer.
Holy places attract lot of tourists from all over the world. Buddhists come from all over the world during Buddha Jayanthi at Bodh Gaya and Rajgir. Jains reach Pawapuri and Pareshnath Hill on the occasion of Mahavir Jayanthi.
The effigies of Ravana were set on the fire during Dussera festival. At Pataliputra the festivals of Dussera and Diwali to celebrate the coming back of Rama from the exile is very unique. Bihar produces more than 40% of the minerals in the country. Even gold is found on prospecting on the river Subarnarekha near Ranchi and on the river Goverdhan of Valmikinagar.
Bihar has a large number of Industries. It has Cotton spinning mills, sugar mills, jute and leather producing units. The state’s tusser is very famous. It has cottage industries producing handicrafts. The main occupation of this people is agriculture. This state produces rice, wheat, maize, ragi and pulses as also sugarcane, tobacco, oilseeds, potato and jute.
Pattatu thermal unit, Barauni thermal power unit, Muzaffarpur thermal power station, Subarnareka hydel power station and Kosi Hydal power station are the main power projects.