The natural region of India is divided into four lands. They are the Himalayan range in the north, the Deccan plateau in the South, the Indo Gangetic plain and the desert.
Himalayas are interspersed with three parallel ranges, large plateaus and valleys. The Kashmir and Kullu valley are very fertile. The ranges are very extensive and it adds scenic beauty too. It is the highest mountain range in the world and it runs about 2400 km in a south east to South west direction. This mountain also separates India from Asia. The high altitude of limit ranges a few passes Jelep La and Natu La on the India Tibet route through Chumbi valley. The highest peak of Himalayas is about 8,611 meters in India is Godwin –Austin. Mount Everest in Nepal is the highest peak. It is about 8,848 meters.
The Indo Gangetic plain is a fertile plain. It is about 2400km long and 320 km broad. This plain is formed by the basins of rivers such as the Indus, the Ganga, the Yamuna and the Brahmaputra. The mighty river Ganga is originating from Gangotri in the Himalayas. It flows through the plain and finally meets the Bay of Bengal. The Aryan civilization was flourished by this plain and they made a great stride in the field of Science and literature. The present capital of India, Delhi lies on the banks of Yamuna. The city of Varanasi is situated on the banks of Ganga which is the seat of learning for Hindus. The deer park at Saranath is very famous because, here only Gautama Buddha delivered his first message of forbearance to the suffering of humanity. Patna is in the East; it is the Patliputra of the ancient times and the capital of many greats, including that of Emperor Ashoka.
Deccan plateau lies in the south of the Gangetic plain. The peninsula has the Vindhya ranges in its base and rugged ghats on the either side. The western coast ghats are higher and have a wider strip than the Eastern Ghats. Both the ranges meet in the Nilgiri hills. The hill of Mahabaleshwar and Matheran are in this area. Resorts of Ooty and Kodaikanal are lying in the extreme south. Krishna and Cauveri rivers arise from the Western Ghats and fall into the Bay of Bengal. Tapti and Narmadha fell into the Arabian Sea.
Mumbai is situated in the northwest of the peninsula. It is the principal business centre and the financial capital of the country. Ajanta caves and Ellora temples are about 400km to the Northeast of Mumbai.
The tropical forests of Kerala are situated down south along the narrow stretch of the west coast. This peninsula is the seat of Indian culture. It abounds in beautiful temples and it is the centre of ancient dance. Drama and music have been preserved till date.
The desert region can be divided into two parts. They are the great desert and the little desert.
Islands under India
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman has 204 islands and Nicobar has 19 small islands. Port Blair is their capital and they are governed by the union government.
This comprises 27 islands scattered in the Arabian Sea. They are some 300km west of Kerala coast. They are also called as union territories.
India has hottest, coldest and wettest regions in this world. The seasons can be divided into three. They are summer, winter and monsoon.
The summer season spreads out from April-June. The most parts of the country are very hot during the summer months. The temperature goes beyond 50°C in some places Barmer in Rajasthan will be very hot during the day time. We can visit some places during this season they are Shimla, Kulu Manali, Mussori, Nainital, Kashmir, Ootacamund, Darjeeling, Panchmari, Mount Abu etc.
The winter season of India is from October to March. The North shivers during this period and the temperature is1°C or 2°C in the plains often. Himalayan region has a few rounds of snowfall during the period. Some places like Kargil, Drass and Siachin record temperature as low as -40. It is often foggy and cloudy in the plains. Dal Lake in Kashmir gets frozen but people go to hill resort to see snow fall and do skiing. The Southern peninsula enjoys spring like climate during this period.
The rainy season starts in July and ends in October. India receives two types of monsoon. They are the South west monsoon and the North east monsoon. The latter is active from October to December and is confined to the East coast. Most parts of the country like Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Megalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal, Western ghats and the Indo Gangetic plain receive good rains during the rainy season. Cherapunji in Megalaya gets the maximum amount of rainfall in the world as high as 1080cm annually. Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Bhramaputra, Krishna and Narmadha overflow their banks and cause damage to the crops wide spreadly to the houses and lands. Because of the huge size of the country Kutch, Western Rajasthan and parts of Haryana, Punjab and Ladhak receive scanty rainfall less than 50 cm in a year. Jaisalmer is usually the worst hit.
The Himalayas spread over the range of 2500km. It covers an area of 5,00,000 sq. km. Its highest peak is the Mount Everest in Nepal.
This range in North Western part of the country is very old and reminds one of the huge ranges of the Prehistoric days.
This range is about 1050km long and covers the whole peninsular India.
This mountain range runs along India-Bangladesh-Burma border. It is also known as Purvachal.
Satpura is about 900km long. It is triangular in shape and some peaks are as high as 1000meters.
It runs along the Deccan plateau from Tapti River to Kanyakumari and over look the Arabian Sea.
The Eastern Ghats are made by powerfully flowing rivers into mountains. They are as high as 1000 meters at some points.
Magnitude of India
Himalayas to Kanyakumari is about 3214km.
Rann of Kutch to Assam is about 2933km.
Length of land frontier is about 15200km.
Total land area is about 3287263 sqkm.
National Aquatic animal
India’s national aquatic animal is the Gangetic Dolphin. This is an important step in the conservations and preservation of this endangered animal which is unique to India.