Bidar is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located on the Deccan Plateau in the north-eastern part of Karnataka. It is the headquarters of the Bidar District which shares its border with Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. It is also called as crown of Karnataka.
Bidar city is known for its Bidri handicraft products. Manjira River is one of the main rivers supplying drinking water to Bidar . Recently Bidar was ranked 22nd among the cleanest cities in India, and 5th cleanest in Karnataka. It is connected with NH9 and NH218 and whole city is integrated with 4 lane road. With an area of 5,448 sq km Bidar forms the eighth smallest district of Karnataka, and population according to 2001 census is 12,56,000. Located at the northern tip of Karnataka, Bidar has Andhra Pradesh o its east ad Maharastra on its west. This district is bordered on the south by Kalburgi.
The district headquarters Bidar is situated about 740 km from Bengalooru. At an altitude of 664m above sea level Bidar offers a pleasant cool climate. This historic place was also the capital of Bahmini and Barid Shahi rulers.
Tranquil cave temples dedicated to Lord Narasimha, the Fort, Khwaja Mohammed Gawan’s Madrasa, and the Tombs of the Bahmini and the Baridi rulers are the important monuments here. Bidar has road access to kalburgi and rail access to Hyderabad.
Bidar is located at 17.9°N 77.55°E. It has an average elevation of 615 metres (2017 feet). Bidar was known as Mohammadabad in olden times. Bidar is a charming district- one of its charms being a very bracing climate practically throughout the district and for the greater part of the year. April and may In Bidar are hot, but even during this hot weather, the heat is often broken by sharp and sudden thunder showers. By early June the south-west monsoon sets in with its pleasant coolness and the weather is back to its bracing glory. The cold weather is never too cold and the rainfall is never excessive though its excessive variation is often the cause, symptom and malaise of severe droughts. One other aspect of its charm is that it is full of history- every village and town being replete with monuments, legends, stories of valour, romance of beautiful princesses, long forgotten battles, feuding military adventurers and even of social reform movements that shook the very foundation and structure of medieval Hinduism.
Bidar has lots of historical monuments from the Bahmani era. The structure of the great Mahmud Gawan Arabic University is reminiscent of the rich architecture of the Bahmani era. The Bidar Fort situated next to the city is one of the biggest forts in India.
This magnificent fort built by the Islamic rulers contains a mosque known as the Solakamb Mosque and three palatial mansions know as the Ranjou Mahal, Chini Mahal and turkis Mahal. Decorative wood work and mosaic add to the interior charms.
The fort also has exquisite doorways and massive bastions. ‘Bari Tope’ or the huge cannon is one of the chief attractions. There is also a museum with a good collection of interesting artifacts. Facing this is the mosque behind which is Dewani Aam and the Gangan Mahal.
Gawan’s Madrasa or the college of Mahammed Gawan is an elegant edifice of the Indo-Saracenic architecture.
Tombs of Bahmini Sultans
These tall tombs are situated at Ashtor near Bidar. These are imposing but devoid of Paintings.
Nanak Jhora Gurudwara
Situated less than a couple of kilometres from Bidar this serene Jain shrine has been raised to commemorate the sojourn of Guru Nanak at this place.
The legend has it that this region was once hit by a severe drought and the hapless people bursting for water turned to Guru Nanak who happened to visit the place as part of His nation-wide mission. Moved by the entreats of the water deprived people, the ever so merciful ‘Guru’, created, out of His supernatural powers, a vivacious spring by pressing the top of a hill with His sacred foot. The legend also adds that by promising an iron bangle at the shrine here one can get one’s wishes granted. Of course, it is a prerogative to meet out the promise.
There is a tank here whose steps are laid with beautiful white marble stones. Nearby there is a larger enclosure of serene waters where a dip is believed to confer merit and cure diseases.
Situated about 65km from Bidar Basava Kalyana, the Taluk Headquarters of Bidar, is a city of historic importance. It was the capital of Chalukyas. This is also the place where the famous Saint Basaveswara lived. The Lingayat community owes its origin to this saint. The ancient for here has been refurbished by the Bahminis. There is also an interesting museum of archaeological artefacts in the fort. There are also other important monuments to be seen (viz) the modern temple dedicated to Lord Basaveswara, Prabhudevara Gadduge, Tipuranta Keswara Temple, Nagamma’s cave and Madivala Machiah’s Pond.