Raichur is a city municipality in the district of Raichur in the Indian state of Karnataka. Raichur, located between Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers. It was in the princely state of Hyderabad under the rule of the nizam . It is located 409 km from the state capital, Bangalore.
The city of Raichur is a repository of age-old relics and artefacts. In the past it had been a rolling possession of the Kakatiyas, the Bhaminis and the rulers of Vijayanagar and Bijapur. The ancient monuments are the fort built in 1294, the Mosques and Tombs. The important temples are those of Lord Manikprabhu and Lord Ramalingeswara. However, these are of present age. The district spreads over 5,559 sq km and has population of 13,51,809 people (2001 census).
Raichur is very rich from the epigraphically point of view. It has already yielded hundreds of inscriptions, ranging from the Mauryan period up to the end of the Muslim period. The inscriptions are in a variety of languages such as Sanskrit, Prakrit, Kannada, Arabic, and Persian and belonging to almost all the dynasties that ruled over the Dekkan. The most important places from this point of view are Maski, Koppal, Kuknur, Mudgal and Raichur.
The fort of Raichur was built by Kakatiya king Rudra in 1284 CE which passed on to the Vijayanagar kingdom after the decline of Kakatiyas. Ever since, the fort has been under dispute for nearly two centuries. The fort was captured by Bahmanis in 1323 CE. Saluva Narasimha Raya expressed a wish in his testament that the city of Raichur be recaptured. This has been in the mind of Krishnadevaraya since his coronation in 1509. In the year 1520 Krishnadevaraya sent Seyed Maraikar, a Muslim in his service to Goa with a large sum of money to buy horses. Maraikar instead went to Adil Khan with the money and offered his services. Krishnadevaraya made a demand that Maraikar be returned along with the money which was duly refused. During the period of peace Krishnadevaraya made extensive preparations for a grand attack on Raichur doab. After the court decided that Raichur should be attacked the king invited all commanders (Nayakas) in his service to take part in the battle.
The climate of the district is characterized by dryness for the major part of the year and a very hot summer. The low and highly variable rainfall renders the district liable to drought. The year may be divided broadly into four seasons. The hot season begins by about the middle of February and extends to the end of May the South-west monsoon is from June to end of September. October and November are the post monsoon or retreating monsoon months and the period from December to the middle of February is the cold season.
The only meteorological observatory in the district is at Raichur. The data of this observatory may be taken as representative of the conditions in the district. December is the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at 29.3 Degree C. (84.8 F) and the mean daily minimum at 17.7C (63.9F) The nights are generally cool in the season, but day temperatures sometimes reach 35 to 38 Degree C. The period from about the middle of February to May is one of continuous rise in temperatures, May is the hottest month, the mean daily maximum temperature being 39.8 (103.7 F) The heat is oppressive till the onset of the south-west monsoon by about the first week of June. Thereafter the weather becomes slightly cooler and continues to be so till the end of the South-west monsoon season. Day temperatures show a slight increase in October. From November, both day and night temperatures gradually decrease till December.
The highest maximum temperature ever recorded at Raichur was 45.6 degree Celsius (114.1 F) on 23 May 1928 and lowest minimum temperature of 7.1 degree Celsius (44.7 F) on Tuesday 11 January 2011, which is the lowest in the past 119 years as per the summary of observations recorded by the Indian Meteorological Department.
Just about 2km from Raichur Railway Station, stands this monumental fort built by the Kakatiya rulers in 1294. A prime attraction here is the huge stone slab which extends to 41ft in length, situated near the bus stand at Raichur. This slab depicts a record in Telugu and also the awe inspiring scenes of the huge slabs being hauled up the hill with the help of buffalo driven carts.
The Ekminar Mosque
It was built during the days of Mohammed shah Bhamini. The Jami Masjid, however is the largest Mosque of the place.
Situated about 40km from Gadag, Itagi is where the ancient temple with visibly the best of Kalyani Chalukya architecture is situated. Built by Mahadeva Dhandanayaka this temple is noted for its intricately carved ingress. The ethereal sculpture makes a lasting impression. The architecture has drawn historic comparisons with that of the temples at Halebid.
‘Saraswathi Mutt’, the student’s residence is yet another important monument here. About 10km from here, at Kukanur stands the famous temple complex of ‘Navalinga’ obviously dedicated ot Lord Siva. This is a fine architectural endeavour of the Rashtrakutas. There are also temples built during the rule of Kalyani Chalukyas. These are the ancient temples dedicated to Lord Mahamaya, Lord Kaleswara and Lord Mallikarjuna.
Koppal is a modified nomenclature of the ancient ‘Kopana’. Koppal was the capital of the provincial Kingdom of Shilaharas, a feudatory to the Kalyani Chalukyas. This place has a magnificent citadel.
It is also a holy place of Jains. At palligundu, there is an ancient Siva Temple known as the Male Malleswara Temple. The inscriptions of Ashoka are also found at Palligundu and Govimatha. There is also a belief that it was this place Palligundu, referred to as Indrakila Parvatha in the great epic ‘The Ramayana’. And Kinhal about 13km from Koppal is famous for its traditional colourful lacquerware.
This place is famous for its gold mines. It is about 18 km from Lingasugar.