National Symbols of India
The National flag
Our National flag has tri colour. The deep saffron color is at the top. White color is in the middle and dark green is at the bottom in equal proportions. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2-3. In the centre of white band there is a wheel in the Navy blue. It represents the chakra, the wheel of Dharma. The design of the wheel appears on the abacus of the Saranath Lion stupa of Emperor Ashoka. It has 24 spokes. The design was first morted by Madame Bhikaji Rustom cama in 1907 and unfurled at Stuttgart for the international socialist congress in1907.
The saffron color represents the sacrifice, white color for purity and the green color represents the prosperity.
The song Jana Gana Mana was composed in Bengali by a Noble Laureate Rabindra nath Tagore. It was adopted in Hindi by the constituent Assembly as the National anthem of India on January 24, 1950. The song was sung at the Calcutta session of the Indian National congress on December 27, 1911. The complete song has 5 stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of National Anthem.
The National song ‘Vandematharam’ was written by Bankim Chandra chatterjee. This was a great inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has the same status as the national anthem and was first sung at the 1896 session of the Indian National congress in Calcutta. Its English translation was done by Sri Aurobindo.
India adopted its national calendar based on the Sakaera with Chaitra at its first month and a normal year of 365 days on March 22, 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar. The dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with the dates of the Greogorian calendar. Chaitra falling on March 22 normally and on March 21 is a leap year.
The National Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Saranath lion capital of King Ashoka as preserved in the Saranath museum, Varanasi. The emblem contains four lions standing back to back mounted on abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in a high relief on an elephant, galloping horse, a bull and a lion is separated by intervening wheels over a bell shaped Lotus. The capital is crowned by a wheel of the law. The emblem adopted by India is different from the original. It has 3 lion’s with open mouths. There is a Dharma Chakra in the centre of the base plate, with a figure of bull on the Right side and that of a horse on the left side. The words Satyameva Jayate from the Mundaka Upanishad meaning ‘Truth alone Triumphs’ are inscribed below the emblem in the form of Devanagari Script.
The majestic tiger Panthera Tigri’s is India’s national animal. This tiger is rich in color, full of illusive design, roaring voice and formidable power have always inspired the Indian people. The famous Royal Bengal Tiger is the native of India and the only specie of tiger is found outside Africa.
The magnificent and wonderful peacock is our national bird. It is the most beautiful bird. Among the male birds, it admired for its glistering long blue neck, fan shape crest and a white patch under the eye. This bird is mentioned in the Indian legends, literature, folk lores and love songs. The court ship dance of the peacock during the rainy season, gives us a spectacular view.
Lotus is a large and admirable flower. It is found on the water surface of lakes or ponds with the stem and the root below is the National flower of India. This flower is used for worshipping Gods. It symbolizes the truth and a person can rise above the worldly evils and keep himself in the high position.